East African Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences https://www.haramayajournals.org/index.php/EAJHBS <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; color: windowtext;">EAJHBS is an official scholarly communication of the College of Health and Medical Sciences that shows the case of research work by health professionals anywhere in the world. It’s headquarter is located at the College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University. Ethiopia. EAJHBS is dedicated to publishing research articles in all areas and all disciplines of Health, Biomedical Sciences and Medicine coming from anywhere in the world. <br></span></p> Haramaya University, Colllege of Health and Medical Sceince en-US East African Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences 2519-917X Undernutrition and its Associated Factors among Pediatric Age Children Attending Antiretroviral Therapy in Eastern Ethiopia https://www.haramayajournals.org/index.php/EAJHBS/article/view/704 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Undernutrition results from insufficient food intake and repeated infectious diseases. Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and malnutrition often coexist, which increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Despite this fact, HIV-positive children are often overlooked, and their nutritional status has not been well studied in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of undernutrition and its associated factors among pediatric age children attending Antiretroviral Therapy in selected public hospitals of Eastern Ethiopia. <strong>Methods:</strong> An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2018. Three hundred seventy six HIV-positive children aged 2-15 years were selected through simple random sampling technique. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data through an interview method in a local language. Nutritional status was assessed using WHO growth standard values, using the WHO Anthro for children less than five and WHO Anthro plus for children over five years. The collected data were entered in to EpiData version 3.1, and transferred to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Statistical significance was declared for P-values less than 0.05 at 95% confidence interval. <strong>Results:</strong> This study found that 24.7% (95% CI: 20.7, 29.4) of the children were stunted and 28.2% (95% CI: 23.7, 32.2) were wasted. Household food insecurity, being anemic, presence of diarrhea during the last 14 days and advanced WHO clinical stages were significantly associated with stunting. While being male, low family monthly income, medium family monthly income, low (poor and medium) dietary diversity, low food consumption score, and the presence of diarrhea during the last 14 days were significantly associated with wasting. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The magnitude of stunting and wasting among HIV-infected pediatric patients is relatively high in the study area. Therefore, more attention should be given in promoting nutritional education for HIV-positive children including dietary diversity and feeding practices to strengthen the immune system</p> <p><em>Keywords: Pediatric; ART; Stunting; wasting; Undernutrition; Eastern Ethiopia</em></p> Betelihem Haileselassie Kedir Teji Roba Fitsum Weldegebreal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 3 1 1 12 Waste Generation and Physicochemical Qualities of Abattoir Wastewater in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia https://www.haramayajournals.org/index.php/EAJHBS/article/view/717 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Improper disposal of abattoir waste without any treatment has severe impacts on the environment and human health. However, there lacks sufficient studies that quantify abattoir waste and physicochemical parameters of wastewater. Thus, this study aimed to estimate waste generation and physicochemical characteristics of wastewater discharged from Hawassa municipal abattoir.<strong> Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa Municipality Abattoir. One year of cattle slaughtering data was collected from the Hawassa municipality registry from March, 2016 to February, 2017. Mathematical computational approach were used to evaluate magnitude and composition of waste generated from the actual number of cattle slaughtered. Samples were collected from two wastewater sites on sewer line into which the abattoir wastewater was discharged. Physicochemical characteristics of the wastewater were determined by different laboratory investigation methods. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21 was used to analyze the mean, standard deviation and one tail of t-test for two mean sample value was assumed for equal variance with 95% Confident Interval (CI) to determine significant difference of each physicochemical parameter between the two sites. <strong>Results:</strong> Hawassa Municipality Abattoir generated 2529.76 kg of waste per day and 923,994.84 kg of waste per year. The analyzed physicochemical parameters indicated high concentrations of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) (579 mg/L), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) (641.30 mg/L), NH3 (56.32 mg/L), TDS (311.60 mg/L), Total Suspended Solid (TSS) (122.16 mg/L), and EC (838.40 μS/cm) at wastewater site 2 and elevated concentrations of PO43- (43.50 mg/L), NO3- (92.24 mg/L), NO2- (23.99 mg/L), and DO (7.67 mg/L) at wastewater site 1. The mean difference in the concentration of COD, BOD5, NO2-, NH3, TDS, TSS and EC obtained from two sites were statistically significant (P&lt;0.05).<strong> Conclusion:</strong> In this study, large quantity of abattoir waste was generated, which was directly discharged into the environment without any treatment. The mean value of most physicochemical parameters were higher than the Ethiopian Environmental Protection Agency maximum permissible limit. Therefore, Hawassa municipality office should design and implement safe abattoir waste treatment technology to safeguard public and environment.</p> <p><em><strong>Keywords:</strong> Abattoir; wastewater; Hawassa; physicochemical parameters</em></p> Sina Temesgen Tolera Solomon Sorsa Sota Ermias Derebie Tesfaye Hambisa Mekonnen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 3 1 13 20 Investigation on Toxicity of Leachate of Cigarette Butts Collected from Addis Ababa on Swiss Albino Mice https://www.haramayajournals.org/index.php/EAJHBS/article/view/719 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter in the world. They are toxic to microorganisms, fish and other marine organisms and birds, but no studies have been done on their toxicity to mammals. The aim of the study was to test the toxicity of cigarette butt leachate on mice. <strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 10,20,30,40 and 75 cigarette buttes with remaining tobacco at the end and/or without were used to prepare leachates. Two Swiss albino mice (adult and baby) groups were allowed to drink the prepared leachates by soaking in water with different number of buttes’ according to study protocol used for adult and baby mice. The weights of the mice, as well as the amount of food and fluid consumed were followed and compared over time. Necropsies were performed and tissues were weighed and evaluated by histological staining with eosin and hematoxylin. Blood glucose and liver function tests (Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase and Alkaline Phosphatase) were also measured. Data was collected from the respective experiments, and analyzed using SPSS version 21 software. <strong>Results:</strong> The mean water only intake of the mice was 35; the mean fluid intake of 10 butt leachate with tobacco was 18; the mean fluid intake of 30 butt leachate with tobacco was 12 and the mean fluid intake of 75 butt leachate with tobacco was 10ml. All fluid intake values were reported in mL/5mice/day. The body weight of experimental mice has shown statistically significant difference in those arms, taking 75 cigarette butt leachate with associated tobacco (pvalue, 0.00078). The lung tissue of the mice that drank leachates made with tobacco-associated butts showed increased air space volumes and alveolar fibrosis. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Cigarette butts resulted in reduced weight gain during growth, reduced mass and size of tissues and organs, and pulmonary emphysematous changes in mice. Since there are few studies on effect of cigarette butt on mice, more studies should be done in this area.</p> <p><em><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cigarette Butt; Leachate; Nicotine; Lung Toxicity</em></p> Tigist Tefera Bekele Frank O. Ashall ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 3 1 21 30 Type II DM Medication Non-Adherence in Adama Hospital Medical College, Central Ethiopia https://www.haramayajournals.org/index.php/EAJHBS/article/view/720 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Type II Diabetes Mellitus is a significant and growing health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, a limited number of studies have tried to investigate treatment non adherence and associated factors among type II Diabetes Mellitus patients. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the magnitude of medication non-adherence and its associated factors among type II Diabetes Mellitus patients in Adama hospital medical college, central Ethiopia. <strong>Methods:</strong> A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted among 140 Type II Diabetes Mellitus patients in Adama Hospital Medical College, central Ethiopia. We used consecutive sampling method, in which every subject meeting the criteria of inclusion is selected until the required sample size is achieved. A standardized Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8) were used to identify the major depressive disorder and medication non adherence, respectively. Data were entered into a computer using EpiData 3.1 then exported to SPSS software version 20 for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with medication non-adherence. <strong>Results:</strong> The magnitude of type II Diabetes Mellitus drug non-adherence was 58.6% (95% CI: 54.7, 62.4). Individuals having major depressive disorders (AOR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.8), experiencing one or more complications (AOR= 3.3; 95% CI: 1.9, 9.0), and average income greater than 1000 birr (AOR= 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.9) were found to be independent predictors of medication non-adherence.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> In this study, the magnitude of medication non-adherence was relatively high among type II Diabetes Mellitus patients. Therefore, health professionals should early screen for diabetes associated complications and comorbid major depressive disorder and treat them early in order to enhance Type II Diabetes Mellitus patients’ medication adherence.</p> <p><em><strong>Keywords:</strong> Medication Non-Adherence; Type II Diabetes Mellitus; Adama; Ethiopia</em></p> Wayu Kusa Daniel Tolessa Tilahun Abdeta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 3 1 31 38 Dysmenorrhea and Associated Factors among Secondary School Students in East Hararghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia https://www.haramayajournals.org/index.php/EAJHBS/article/view/721 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Dysmenorrhea is a common menstrual problem among females in the reproductive ages. It negatively affects adolescents’ and young adults’ school performance, socialization, sports activities, and daily household chores. However, few studies have been conducted on dysmenorrhea among secondary school students in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of dysmenorrhea among secondary school students in East Hararghe Zone. <strong>Methods:</strong> A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2017. A simple random sampling technique was used to select a total of 693 study participants. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through a face-to-face interview. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Logistic regression was utilized to identify factors associated with the outcome variable. <strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 69.26 % (95% CI: 65.6%, 72.7%). A family history of dysmenorrhea (AOR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.47, 3.95), early menarche (AOR=2.33; 95% CI: 1.44, 3.79), and heavy menstruation (AOR=2.49; 95% CI: 1.22, 5.08) were significantly associated with the occurrence of dysmenorrhea. Of the students with dysmenorrhea, 46.1% reported concentration loss during class time, 41.4% reported school missing and 38.2% reported inability to do their homework. The majority (54.4%) of students with dysmenorrhea silently endured their pain, while only 4.2% consulted health care providers. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Dysmenorrhea is highly prevalent among secondary school students. It adversely affects students’ daily activities, and yet is a highly undertreated disorder. Thus, routine screening and treatment strategies should be put in place to help students cope with the challenges of dysmenorrhea . School authorities and teachers should provide education on dysmenorrhea, and academic support for the affected students.</p> <p><em><strong>Keywords:</strong> Dysmenorrhea; menstruation; student; adolescents; Ethiopia</em></p> Hussein Mohammed Nejat Hassen Abdulbasit Musa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 3 1 39 48