Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Factors among Adult HIV Positive People on Antiretroviral Therapy in Jugal Hospital, Harar, Eastern Ethiopia
Background: Despite its significant importance in reducing the morbidity and mortality of HIV-positive people, antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased rate of metabolic syndrome. However, data on metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected people receiving antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia is scarce. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the associated factors of metabolic syndrome among adult HIV positive patients taking antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April, 2017 among adult 375 HIV positive patients taking antiretroviral therapy at Jugal Hospital, Harar, eastern Ethiopia. Demographic, clinical, and anthropometric data were collected from each participant. Venous blood was collected and used for the measurement of glucose and lipid profile using Autolab 18 clinical chemistry analyzer. The International Diabetes Federation, National Cholesterol Education Program: Adult Treatment Panel III and Joint Interim Statement criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. Data were analyzed using STATA Version 13. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the outcome variable. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.1 % (95% CI: 18.2, 26.6) by National Cholesterol Education Program: Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, 26.7% (95% CI: 22.4, 31.4) by International Diabetes Federation criteria, and 29.9% (95% CI: 25.4, 34.7) by Joint Interim Statement criteria. Age over 40 years (AOR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.4-3.8); lack of formal education (AOR=2.4; 95% CI: 112-5.4); and using tenofovir-lamivudine-lopinavir/ritonavir regimens (AOR=6.7; 95% CI: 1.4-32.1) were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome defined by Joint Interim Statement criteria. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is high among HIV-infected people receiving antiretroviral therapy. Age, educational level, and regimens were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, regular screening for components of metabolic syndrome and the promotion of a healthy lifestyle is recommended.
Keywords: ART; Eastern Ethiopia; Harar; HIV; Metabolic Syndrome