Incidence and Its Associated Factors of Phlebitis among Pediatric Patients with Peripheral Intravenous Cannula at Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Harar, Eastern Ethiopia
Background: Phlebitis is one of the common complications of intravenous therapy, with incidence rate ranging from 3.2% to 71.25%. This study aimed to determine the incidence and associated factors of phlebitis, related to the insertion of a peripheral intravenous cannula, among pediatric patients at Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: Institution-based prospective observational study was employed in 380 pediatric patients admitted to the pediatric and neonatal intensive care units of Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital from March to September 2017. Data were collected by using a structured observational checklist (Jackson’s Visual infusion phlebitis; FLAC; CONSOL ability and face’s pain rating scales). Patients were followed from the time of admission until discharge from the hospital or discontinuation of an intravenous cannula. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 20. Logistic regression analyses were performed and a P-value less 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The incidence of phlebitis was 33.7% (95% CI: 29.1, 38.6). Joint involvement for peripheral intravenous administration (AOR=2.07; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.66), indwelling time of 48-72 hours (AOR=2.22; 95% CI: 1.098, 4.485), pain during and after intravenous cannula insertion (AOR=1.32; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.50), and need of extra peripheral intravenous cannula insertion (AOR=3.93; 95% CI: 2.35, 6.58) were the factors significantly associated with phlebitis. Conclusion: The incidence of phlebitis was high. Its associated factors were joint involvement, indwelling time, pain during intravenous cannula insertion, and need for extra peripheral intravenous cannula. Therefore, nurses and other health care providers need to follow the standard protocol of the indwelling time of the catheter and exclude joint involvement. Regular assessment for early identification of symptoms and management of pain is also crucial.
Keywords: Eastern Ethiopia; Incidence; Phlebitis; Pediatric & Neonatal Intensive Care Unit